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End-User Service Terms and Conditions

Effective Date: September 17th, 2014

You service provider’s website and services (collectively, the “Website”) are powered by Viewcy.com, Inc. (“Viewcy,” “we” or “us”), which provides tools, functionality and user experience to your service provider. We do not actually operate the Website or offer your provider’s services, but we do provide tools and services that power the Website and your service provider’s operations.

Viewcy provides its computing applications and services, and the data, information, tools, functionality, updates and similar materials delivered or provided by Viewcy to your service provider (collectively, the “Service”), subject to your agreement to and compliance with the conditions set forth in this Terms and Conditions Agreement (the “Agreement”). This Agreement sets forth the legally binding terms and conditions governing your use of the Service through your service provider. By creating an account to use the Service or otherwise entering into this Agreement, you are creating a binding contract with Viewcy.

Viewcy may revise or update the Terms and Conditions by posting an amended Agreement through the Service and making you aware of the revisions. Your use of the Service following an update to this Agreement is considered acceptance of the updated Agreement. If you do not accept the changes, you must stop using the Service.

LICENSE

As long as you are in compliance with the conditions of this Agreement and all incorporated documents, Viewcy hereby grants you a limited, revocable, non-assignable, non-transferrable, non-sublicensable, non-exclusive license to use and access the Service only on your computing device for personal use. No rights not explicitly listed are granted.

INCORPORATED TERMS

The following additional terms are incorporated into this Agreement as if fully set forth herein:

  1. Privacy Policy
  2. Copyright Policy
  3. Complaint Policy (including Privacy and Trademark)

SERVICE PROVIDER

You understand and agree that Viewcy licenses a software platform to its licensees, and Viewcy does not actually operate the websites offering services to you. Any complaints or claims you have with the websites or providers offering you services should be raised directly with such providers. You covenant not to bring any claims against Viewcy arising out of the conduct of such providers.

CANCELLATION AND REFUND POLICY

Viewcy manages the online payment system for the Service. Fees for classes, courses and other services that you obtain from third-party providers on the Service are charged to your selected payment method on the day identified for the rendering of the service. These fees are held in escrow until the third day after the services are identified to be rendered.

Please refer to the terms of sale provided by your third-party provider to determine what cancellation policy (if any) may be applicable to your purchase. If no cancellation policy is present, you may cancel a purchase up to twenty four (24) hours before it is scheduled to be rendered.

No refund mechanism is available through the Service after the release to your third-party service provider of your fees from escrow. If your third-party service provider has a refund policy, and you would like a refund before your fees are released from escrow, please contact your service provider, who will report your request to Viewcy. If your third-party service provider has a refund policy, and you would like a refund after your fees are released from escrow, you must make separate arrangements with your third-party service provider outside of the Service.

IMPORTANT NOTICES; AVAILABILITY

While we make reasonable efforts to ensure that the Service remains available at all times, we do not represent or warrant that access to the Service will be error-free or uninterrupted, or without defect, and we do not guarantee that users will be able to access or use the Service, or its features, at all times.

We reserve the right at any time and from time to time to modify or discontinue, temporarily or permanently, the Service, or any part thereof, with or without notice.

The Service may contain typographical errors or inaccuracies, including relating to price, and may not be complete or current. We reserve the right to correct any such errors, inaccuracies or omissions and to change or update information at any time without prior notice, even if your order has already been accepted or processed.

RULES OF CONDUCT

Your use of the Service is conditioned on your compliance with the terms of this Agreement, including but not limited to these rules of conduct.

You agree that you will not violate any applicable law or regulation in connection with your use of the Service. Without limiting the foregoing, you agree that you will not make available through the Service any material or information that infringes any copyright, trademark, patent, trade secret, or other right of any party (including rights of privacy or publicity).

You agree not to distribute, upload, make available or otherwise publish through the Service any suggestions, information, ideas, comments, documents, questions, notes, plans, drawings, proposals, or materials similar thereto (“Submissions”) or graphics, text, information, links, profiles, audio, photos, software, music, sounds, video, comments, messages or tags, or similar materials (“Content”) that:

  1. is unlawful or encourages another to engage in anything unlawful;
  2. contains a virus or any other similar programs or software which may damage the operation of Viewcy’s or another’s computer;
  3. violates the rights of any party or infringes upon the patent, trademark, trade secret, copyright, or other intellectual property right of any party; or,
  4. is libelous, defamatory, pornographic, obscene, lewd, indecent, inappropriate, invasive of privacy or publicity rights, abusing, harassing, threatening, bullying or otherwise objectionable.

You must keep your user name and password and any other information needed to login to the Service, if applicable, confidential and secure. We are not responsible for any unauthorized access to your account or profile by others.

You further agree that you will not do any of the following:

  1. modify, adapt, translate, copy, reverse engineer, decompile or disassemble any portion of the Service;
  2. interfere with or disrupt the operation of the Service, including restricting or inhibiting any other person from using the Service by means of hacking or defacing;
  3. transmit to or make available in connection with the Service any denial of service attack, virus, worm, Trojan horse or other harmful code or activity;
  4. attempt to probe, scan or test the vulnerability of a system or network or to breach security or authentication measures without proper authorization;
  5. take any action that imposes, or may impose, in our sole discretion, an unreasonable or disproportionately large load on our infrastructure;
  6. harvest or collect the email address or other contact information of other users of the Service;
  7. scrape or collect content from the Service via automated means;
  8. submit, post or make available false, incomplete or misleading information to the Service, or otherwise provide such information to Viewcy;
  9. register for more than one user account; or,
  10. impersonate any other person or business.

You are not licensed to access any portion of the Service that is not public, and you may not attempt to override any security measures in place on the Service.

Notwithstanding the foregoing rules of conduct, Viewcy’s unlimited right to terminate your access to the Service shall not be limited to violations of these rules of conduct.

CONTENT SUBMITTED OR MADE AVAILABLE TO VIEWCY

You are under no obligation to submit anything to us, and unless otherwise noted, we will not claim ownership of any Content. If, however, you choose to submit any Content to the Service, or otherwise make available any Content through the Service, you hereby grant Viewcy a perpetual, irrevocable, transferrable, sub-licensable, non-exclusive, worldwide, royalty-free license to reproduce, use, modify, display, perform, distribute, translate and create derivative works from any such Content, including without limitation distributing part or all of the Content in any media format through any media channels.

In the event that any individuals appear in the Content you make available through the Service, you grant Viewcy a perpetual, irrevocable license to commercially use name, likeness, and persona of the individuals depicted therein in the promotion and rendering of the Service.

If you access the Service through a third-party social media account (e.g., Facebook, Twitter, Google+), you agree that the Service may use your profile information and Content to populate your profile on the Service of Website.

By submitting or sharing any Content or Submissions to Viewcy, you hereby agree, warrant and represent that: (a) the Content and Submissions do not contain proprietary or confidential information, and the provision of the Content and Submissions is not a violation of any third-party’s rights; (b) all such Submissions and Content are accurate and true, (c) Viewcy is not under any confidentiality obligation relating to the Content or Submissions; (d) Viewcy shall be entitled to use or disclose the Content or Submissions in any way; and (e) you are not entitled to compensation or attribution from Viewcy in exchange for the Submissions or Content.

You acknowledge that Viewcy is under no obligation to maintain the Service, or any information, materials, Submissions, Content or other matter you submit, post or make available to or on the Service. We reserve the right to withhold, remove and or discard any such material.

CONTENT SHARED THROUGH VIEWCY

The Service may make it possible for you to choose to share certain information with the public. There are a number of ways in which you can control how much information is shared with the public, and Viewcy will make efforts to comply with your instructions from the options provided to you by Viewcy. You understand that by designating information to be shared through the Service, you may be revealing information that you choose to share. You understand and acknowledge that you are fully aware and responsible for the impact of sharing such materials, and you agree that Viewcy shall not be help responsible, and Viewcy shall be released and held harmless by you from any liability or damages arising out of such conduct.

VIEWCY’S INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY

Viewcy’s graphics, logos, names, designs, page headers, button icons, scripts, and service names are trademarks, trade names and/or trade dress of Viewcy. The “look” and “feel” of the Service (including color combinations, button shapes, layout, design and all other graphical elements) are protected by U.S. copyright and trademark law. All product names, names of services, trademarks and service marks (“Marks”) are the property of Viewcy or the property of their respective owners, as indicated. You may not use the Marks or copyrights for any purpose whatsoever other than as permitted by this Agreement.

You acknowledge that the software used to provide the Service, and all enhancements, updates, upgrades, corrections and modifications to the software, all copyrights, patents, trade secrets, or trademarks or other intellectual property rights protecting or pertaining to any aspect of the software (or any enhancements, corrections or modifications) and any and all documentation therefor, are and shall remain the sole and exclusive property of Viewcy and/or its licensors, as the case may be. This Agreement does not convey title or ownership to you, but instead gives you only the limited rights set forth herein.

ENFORCEMENT AND TERMINATION OF SERVICES

Viewcy reserves the right to deny all or some portion of the Service to any user, in Viewcy’s sole discretion, at any time.

Without limiting the foregoing or assuming additional legal obligations, Viewcy has a policy of terminating repeat violators of the Copyright Act, in accordance with applicable law. All grants of any rights from you to Viewcy related to Content, Submissions, or other materials, including but not limited to copyright licenses, shall survive any termination of this Agreement. Further, your representations, defense and indemnification obligations survive any termination of this Agreement.

LINKS AND THIRD-PARTY CONTENT

The Service may contain links. Such links are provided for informational purposes only, and Viewcy does not endorse any website or services through the provision of such a link.

The Service may contain articles, text, imagery, video, audio, data, information and other similar materials originating from third-parties. Viewcy does not endorse any third party content that may appear on the Service or that may be derived from content that may appear on the Service, even if such content was summarized, collected, reformatted or otherwise edited by Viewcy.

DISCLAIMERS AND LIMITATION ON LIABILITY

YOU AGREE AND ACKNOWLEDGE THAT THE SERVICE IS PROVIDED “AS IS” AND “AS AVAILABLE”, WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY OR CONDITION, EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY. VIEWCY, ITS PARENTS, SUBSIDIARIES, AFFILIATES, OFFICERS, DIRECTORS, SHAREHOLDERS, MEMBERS, MANAGERS, EMPLOYEES AND SUPPLIERS SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIM ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF TITLE, ACCURACY, SUITABILITY, APPLICABILITY, MERCHANTABILITY, PERFORMANCE, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, NON-INFRINGEMENT OR ANY OTHER WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND. NO ADVICE OR INFORMATION (ORAL OR WRITTEN) OBTAINED BY YOU FROM VIEWCY SHALL CREATE ANY WARRANTY.

USE OF THE SERVICE IS AT YOUR SOLE RISK. VIEWCY DOES NOT WARRANT THAT YOU WILL BE ABLE TO ACCESS OR USE THE SERVICE AT THE TIMES OR LOCATIONS OF YOUR CHOOSING; THAT THE SERVICE WILL BE UNINTERRUPTED OR ERROR-FREE; THAT DEFECTS WILL BE CORRECTED; THAT DATA TRANSMISSION OR STORAGE IS SECURE OR THAT THE SERVICE IS FREE OF INACCURACIES, MISREPRESENTATIONS, VIRUSES OR OTHER HARMFUL INFORMATION OR COMPONENTS.

TO THE MAXIMUM EXTENT PERMITTED BY LAW, IN NO EVENT SHALL VIEWCY OR ITS PARENTS, SUBSIDIARIES, AFFILIATES, OFFICERS, DIRECTORS, SHAREHOLDERS, MEMBERS, MANAGERS, EMPLOYEES AND SUPPLIER (COLLECTIVELY, THE “RELATED PARTIES”) BE LIABLE TO YOU BASED ON OR RELATED TO THE SERVICE, WHETHER BASED IN CONTRACT, TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE), STRICT LIABILITY OR OTHERWISE, AND SHALL NOT BE RESPONSIBLE FOR ANY LOSSES OR DAMAGES, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, CONSEQUENTIAL, OR SPECIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF OR IN ANY WAY CONNECTED WITH ACCESS TO OR USE OF THE SERVICE, EVEN IF VIEWCY AND/OR RELATED PARTIES HAVE BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, in the event that a court shall find that the above disclaimers are not enforceable, then you agree that neither Viewcy nor any of the Related Parties shall be liable for (1) any damages in excess of $1,000.00 or (2) any indirect, incidental, punitive, special, or consequential damages or loss of use, lost revenue, lost profits or data to you or any third party from your use of the Service. This limitation shall apply regardless of the basis of your claim or whether or not the limited remedies provided herein fail of their essential purpose.

This limitation shall not apply to any damage that Viewcy causes you intentionally and knowingly in violation of this Agreement or applicable law that cannot be disclaimed in this Agreement.

INDEMNIFICATION

You agree to defend, indemnify and hold Viewcy and its suppliers, subsidiaries, licensors, and licensees, and each of their officers, directors, shareholders, members, employees and agents harmless from all allegations, judgments, awards, losses, liabilities, costs and expenses, including but not limited to reasonable attorney's fees, expert witness fees, and costs of litigation arising out of or based on (a) Submissions or Content you submit, post to or transmit through the Service, (b) your use of the Service, (c) your violation of the Agreement, and (d) any conduct, activity or action which is unlawful or illegal under any state, federal or common law, or is violative of the rights of any individual or entity, engaged in, caused by, or facilitated in any way through the use of Service.

DISPUTES, GOVERNING LAW AND JURISDICTION

This Agreement is governed by and shall be construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York, U.S.A., excluding the application of its conflict of law rules. You agree that any dispute arising out of or relating to the Service, or to Viewcy, may only be brought by you in a state or federal court located in New York. YOU HEREBY WAIVE ANY OBJECTION TO THIS VENUE AS INCONVENIENT OR INAPPROPRIATE, AND AGREE TO EXCLUSIVE JURISDICTION AND VENUE IN NEW YORK.

POLICIES FOR CHILDREN

The Service are not directed to individuals under the age of 13. You must be over the age of 13 to use the Service. In the event that Viewcy discovers that a child under the age of 13 has provided personally identifiable information to us, we will make efforts to delete the child’s information in accordance with the Children's Online Privacy Protection Act. Please see the Federal Trade Commission's website for (www.ftc.gov) for more information.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, pursuant to 47 U.S.C. Section 230(d), as amended, we hereby notify you that parental control protections are commercially available to assist you in limiting access to material that is harmful to minors. More information on the availability of such software can be found through publicly available sources. You may wish to contact your Internet Service Provider for more information.

GENERAL

Severability. If any provision of this Agreement is found for any reason to be unlawful, void or unenforceable, then that provision will be given its maximum enforceable effect, or shall be deemed severable from this Agreement and will not affect the validity and enforceability of any remaining provision.

No Partnership. You agree that no joint venture, partnership, employment, or agency relationship exists between you and Viewcy as a result of this Agreement or your use of the Service.

Assignment. Viewcy may assign its rights under this Agreement, in whole or in part, to any person or entity at any time with or without your consent. You may not assign the Agreement without Viewcy’s prior written consent, and any unauthorized assignment by you shall be null and void.

Attorneys’ Fees. In the event any litigation is brought by Viewcy in connection with this Agreement, the prevailing party in such litigation shall be entitled to recover from the other party all the reasonable costs, attorneys’ fees and other expenses incurred by such prevailing party in the litigation.

No Waiver. Our failure to enforce any provision of this Agreement shall in no way be construed to be a present or future waiver of such provision, nor in any way affect the right of any party to enforce each and every such provision thereafter. The express waiver by us of any provision, condition or requirement of this Agreement shall not constitute a waiver of any future obligation to comply with such provision, condition or requirement.

Notices. All notices given by you or required under this Agreement shall be in writing and addressed to: legal@viewcy.com.

Equitable Remedies. You hereby agree that Viewcy would be irreparably damaged if the terms of this Agreement were not specifically enforced, and therefore you agree that we shall be entitled, without bond, other security, or proof of damages, to appropriate equitable remedies with respect to breaches of this Agreement, in addition to such other remedies as we may otherwise have available to us under applicable laws.

Entire Agreement. This Agreement, including the documents expressly incorporated by reference, constitutes the entire agreement between you and Viewcy with respect to the Service, and supersedes all prior or contemporaneous communications, whether electronic, oral or written.

COPYRIGHT POLICY

If you believe in good faith that any material posted on or through our Service infringes the copyright in your work, please contact our copyright agent, designated under the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (“DMCA”) (17 U.S.C. §512(c)(3)), with correspondence containing the following:

A physical or electronic signature of the owner, or a person authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyright that is allegedly infringed;

Identification of the copyrighted work claimed to have been infringed;

Identification, with information reasonably sufficient to allow its location of the material that is claimed to be infringing;

Information reasonably sufficient to permit us to contact you;

A statement that you have a good faith belief that use of the material in the manner complained of is not authorized by the copyright owner, its agent, or the law; and,

A statement that the information in the notification is accurate, and under penalty of perjury, that you are authorized to act on behalf of the owner of an exclusive right that is allegedly infringed.

You acknowledge that if you fail to comply with all of the requirements of this policy, your DMCA notice may not be valid. For any questions regarding this procedure, or to submit a complaint, please contact our designated DMCA Copyright Agent:

Copyright Agent

Viewcy.com, Inc.

470 Ocean Avenue, Apt. LF6

Booklyn, NY 11226-2884

e-mail: legal@viewcy.com

COMPLAINT POLICY (INCLUDING TRADEMARK AND PRIVACY)

If you believe in good faith that any material posted on the Service infringes any of your rights other than in copyright, or is otherwise unlawful, you must send a notice to legal@viewcy.com, containing the following information:

Your name, physical address, e-mail address and phone number;

A description of the material posted on the Site that you believe violates your rights or is otherwise unlawful, and which parts of said materials you believe should be remedied or removed;

Identification of the location of the material on the Site;

If you believe that the material violates your rights, a statement as to the basis of the rights that you claim are violated;

If you believe that the material is unlawful or violates the rights of others, a statement as to the basis of this belief;

A statement under penalty of perjury that you have a good faith belief that use of the material in the manner complained of is not authorized and that the information you are providing is accurate to the best of your knowledge and in good faith; and,

Your physical or electronic signature.

If we receive a message that complies with all of these requirements, we will evaluate the submission, and if appropriate, in our sole discretion, we will take action. We may disclose your submission to the poster of the claimed violative material, or any other party.

The immeasurable contribution of Abdul Karim Khan to the Kirana gharan

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Abdul Karim Khan (centre) The master’s style became so well established that it has come to stay. (original article appeared in the NCPA monthly publication)

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Abdul Karim Khan was born on November 11, 1872, at Kirana, a village near Panipat. His father, Kale Khan, was also a musician and Abdul Karim and his two other brothers, Abdul-Majid and Abdulhug, imbibed their earliest lessons in music from him. It is said that Abdul Karim and one of his brothers left Kirana when they were still in their teens and came to Baroda where Abdul Karim soon earned a name for himself as a young poet and talented musician. He then left Baroda and travelled to Poona and Bombay. He imparted his knowledge of music to a few earnest students and soon established himself as an outstanding musician of the Kirana gharana. He finally left Bombay and settled in Miraj, which was then a princely state. Among the well-known musicians of his time, he was the first who studied the complex problems of shruti. He was the principal and perhaps the only demonstrator of the shruti scale of the chromatic scale of Hindustani music. He demonstrated that the subdivision of the seven notes of the usual gamut into 22 parts was a fact to be reckoned with and not just a fantasy in the minds of ancient musicologists.

Missing

Abdul Karim was a man of simple and frugal habits, non-ostentatious and kindhearted. He did not bully or ill-treat his pupils and those who lived with him enjoyed parental care and attention. At Miraj, he developed an interest in the tanpura and brought his own musical knowledge to bear in the construction. He was on his way to Pondicherry when he experienced a severe pain in the chest at Chingalpeth. On October 27, 1937, he died peacefully on the platform at Singapuram Koilam, reciting Kalma in the raga Darbari. We find it a little difficult to understand how it is that geophysical regionalism has become synonymous with the history of gharanas rather than the names of those maestros who have devoted their lives propagating and teaching the mode of music perfected by them in their own way and after their own heart. Is it the typical oriental philosophy of the impermanence of man that is responsible for the transference of credit and merit from man to place?

Missing

Let us consider the Kirana gharana and its distinguishing points. First, not much is known about Abdul Karim’s teacher, his father, Kale Khan. Abdul Wahid Khan, another exponent of the Kirana gharana, learnt his music from his father Hyder Khan. Not much is known about him either. Bande Ali Khan, the been maestro, is said to have belonged to this gharana and except for his celestial music and the romance which culminated in his marriage to his disciple, Chunna, there are few mentions of the Kirana gayaki. Most accounts of musicians, both living and dead, are anecdotal. They do not give us even a glimmer of the manner in which these great masters imbibed their music, the methods, the routine they followed and the influences which worked on them. It is not possible to convey accurately the idea of a gharana through words because our musical aesthetic or critical vocabulary have yet to arrive at a stage of absolute precision. It is still in a state of evolution. A listener feels the stamp of a gharana and there it rests; the musician, guided by his fancy and immersed in his own interpretation, has already left familiar ground and is in his own world where the gharana is as far removed from him as an airman from terra firma.

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A common observation about the Kirana school is that the musician develops his song or cheeja merely on the strength of the alapi or elongated notes, so dovetailed that in his exposition of the melody, his only aim is to fix and cajole or caress a note, the only limitation being that of tala (the time measure), which beckons him to the point of return. The sweetness of melody is primarily due to the tonal quality, which imbibes a gradual, subtle use of semi-tones in the main note, whose placement in the scheme of the melodic weave is the main objective. For him the cheeja are only a help in articulation. The Kirana musician seems to have all the time in the world once he has started and closed his eyes to mundane things like the audience. He weaves his net of alapi around a note and ascends the melodic structure as delicately as a gossamer spread over a leaf. He is in love with his swara he has captured that very moment. He plays with it, is engrossed in its nodal and sub-nodal musicality. This has provoked derisive and wholly unjustified remarks from listeners. They say if one Kirana gharana musician takes half an hour to reach gandhar, another musician of the same gharana will take one hour to do so.

Missing

Some musicologists are of the opinion that this gayaki lacks form. The existence of so many gharanas is proof that what is termed form is an elastic, accommodative arrangement and not a principle of scientific rigidity. In our music, the artiste sets out and sings a cheeja perhaps once; he enunciates it properly and then begins to establish the melody in a multi-pronged manner. The chosen melody is set to a particular tala, and his beginning in slow tempo necessitates a slow and leisurely progress. Each school of music has decided over a long period of deliberation and practice its own mode of such measured progress. If we compare two music lovers’ assessments of a gharana, both of them may agree on the overall effect of the music but often disagree on individual movements or methods of elaboration. In our music there is really nothing inherent which dictates to us that only one arrangement is possible. Witness, for example, the different ways of enunciating the world kaku in Sanskrit musical treatises. Witness, also, the musician’s improvisations in changing the stress for the sama. One can pile up a whole list of such individual gimmicks employed by a musician.

Missing

In our music, the basic material is the melody or abstract series of sounds related in an artificial manner. These sounds are subject to some arrangements: for example, five-note ragas, six-note ragas and so on. It is easy to understand that once this arrangement is stretched over a composition, that is, on the musical theme, the musician is permitted a great amount of freedom in his handling of it. When we think of form in our music, we have to think of the sound content and not of a rigid structure superimposed on a cheeja and its movement. Hindustani music, is not written and, therefore, the duration of a performance differs from musician to musician. If a musician compresses all his art in a short period of time and another stretches his recital over a longer span, we do not consider it amiss. The total impression is what we finally have in mind. When a Kirana musician creates an agreeable atmosphere of a melody by a succession of notes woven carefully and gradually, and when he expounds the cheeja with finesse and keeps you rooted to your seat, you cannot merely dismiss his art, and his effort as charming yet formless. We will have to grant then that the Kirana musician has evolved his own form and this is no mean achievement.

Missing

Focus on swara A distinctive feature of this school of music can be briefly summarised thus: a Kirana musician places greater stress on the presentation of melody by employing alap or lengthened flights of swara continuation, running through the full time-measure. He does not play within the inherent rhythm or laya in the manner of a musician of the Agra gharana. In fact, his obsession with the swara overshadows every other facet of the presentation of music. He does not unfold the melody through playful hide-and-seek either with the time-measure or with intricate and complex variations of the rhythmic pace. His main concentration is on the note or swara, and with this as his base, he creates an atmosphere of deep reverence. A listener who concentrates on the performance notices that the Kirana musician does not deal with scattered or separate musical ideas, individual movements within the time-circle but builds up his melody, note by note, like a weaver.

Missing

Another distinctive feature of the Kirana musician is his voice culture. His gestures seem to indicate that he is really at great pains to produce a sound, and that he has some difficulty in sustaining it; but actually the artiste is not greatly constricted in his articulation. The Kirana musician’s sense of control of the subtle inflexions in voice production is remarkable and he has had to strive hard to attain it. He seeks to achieve the desired tunefulness. But his mannerisms appear somewhat odd; even so, they are natural to him. In his taans, there is more facial or jaw-bone control. The Kirana musician elaborates the sargam or notation of phrases deftly and in an ingratiating manner. In fact, this has become one of the notable and accepted ingredients of this gharana. His vocal line has a wide range – wider than that of most of the musicians of other schools of music. One significant aspect of the Kirana musician is his presentation of the thumri in his own cultivated way. The Kirana musician’s voice culture is suited to singing the thumri because there is equal stress on both the composition and its meaningful presentation. The Kirana musician’s delineation of a thumri is again swara-dominated and tends towards a khayal pattern.

Missing

A genius arrives Abdul Karim evolved and perfected the style entirely on the basis of his own genius. There is a gramophone disc of Abdul Karim, rare, yet still available in the possession of connoisseurs. It reveals an entirely different kind of musician. One can hardly place the musician as Abdul Karim even after ten guesses. It is clear that Abdul Karim pondered over the problems of musical expression. He was gifted with a sweet and extremely pliant voice, which he cultivated in his own rigorous manner and it is on record that he enjoined his disciples to conform to the voice culture he taught them and to perfect it through persistent practice. Abdul Karim could reproduce all the 22 shrutis of our chromatic scale. Apparently, what we call form came to the musicians through the dhrupad style which was rigid in its structural presentation. Our musical progress, however, is traceable to rebels who boldly deviated from the uncompromising elements in the attitude of the dhrupadiyas. Abdul Karim ought to be applauded for the leadership he took in this battle.

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Abdul Karim’s style is now so well established that it has come to stay. He who creates, lives. He has established his own norms, his own code of conduct. He lived at a time when great, very great and even outstanding musicians lived and performed in their own ways. If he rejected some of the ideas of other music styles, he must be applauded rather than accused of departing from them. New and upcoming musicians (like Kumar Gandharva or Vasantrao Deshpande) have also boldly created, established and consolidated their own styles and our music is the richer for their contributions. Abdul Karim’s performances delighted his listeners. In addition to khayalgayaki, he raised thumri presentation to a new and beautiful state. During his performances, the listener experienced a mental repose. He sang khayal, thumris, Marathi stage songs, Marathi pads. He was not a purist or a dogmatic upholder of a particular tradition. He remained in his own sound of swara-dominated trance the whole day, and those who were close to him say he would pick up a tanpura and tune it to the basic note of a tanpura tuned the previous day, without striking the note of the harmonium for support. This meant that he was in constant harmony with that note both during his sleep and during his waking moments.